It was the arrival of increasing numbers of free settlers that provoked hostility to the programme and ended transportation. Historically, we know what encourages convicts to rehabilitate: they must be young, non-violent, dispersed into small communities that know what they are up to, compelled to work, remunerated and punished if they abscond or reoffend.
It is the patience of the broader community that is tested, just as in colonial America or Australia. SIR — Two in five adult prisoners are graduates of institution-based juvenile-justice systems. Rather than rehabilitating our youth, juvenile-correctional facilities train young offenders to be better criminals. Unfortunately, resources are disproportionately channelled toward punitive-corrections policies to the exclusion of effective prevention and intervention programmes.
We now have an ideal opportunity to invest in cost-effective prevention and intervention programmes with proven track records. SIR — I am disappointed that you fail to explore the disconnect between crime rates and the rate of incarceration. You incorrectly say that the imprisonment rate is tied to the crime rate. In reality, America's incarceration rate increased nearly ten fold between and at a time when, according to the Census Bureau's National Crime Victimisation Survey, the crime rate was relatively flat or falling. As you point out, crime is now increasing, which should be expected during the current economic decline.
Your inaccurate assumption that incarceration rates are tied to crime rates greatly underestimates the true horror of what the United States is doing to its underclass by way of imprisonment. While this charge is widely attributed to Palestinians—even in Kofi Annan's UN report—we have been wholly unable to locate any direct quote from any Palestinian official making it in any media. As a publication that sets a higher standard, we urge you to set the record straight, lest one more myth take root among the countless others that fuel the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians.
An examination of his stance, the placement of his hand and the position of his glove reveals that he is not about to catch anything. Rather, he has just tossed the ball. From its size and arc of flight, I would surmise that Mr Romney is playing slow-pitch softball. Not a good omen. The way to win in Massachusetts is to play hardball. This is a misunderstanding of the consistent policy of the Chinese government on the Taiwan question, does not conform to historical facts and misleads readers.
I deeply regret that, as a well-known worldwide magazine, The Economist should commit such mistakes.
Therefore, I believe that it is necessary for me to re-elaborate Chinese government policy on the Taiwan question. Taiwan has been an inseparable part of Chinese territory since ancient times. Most governments in the world, including the British government, recognise that the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing China and that Taiwan is part of China; both the mainland and Taiwan belong to one China.
We are opposed to any attempt to split China in any form. Peaceful reunification of the motherland is a set policy of the Chinese government.
However, the Chinese government is under no obligation to undertake any commitment to give up the use of force. It is true that Taiwan is a member of the WTO and the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation forum, and that it competes in the Asian and Olympic games, but only with the condition that Taiwan participates as a separate tariff zone, an economy or a sports organisation under the one-China principle but not as an independent state.
In a mosaic in the imperial baths in Trier, Germany, Polydus and his lead horse, Compressor, are identified as victors.
Mr Schumacher needs only to find his Juvenal. Nor is it clear why removing Mr Hussein is an essential part of America's declared war on terror. Iraq is not the only nasty regime to possess weapons of mass destruction. These weapons pose an intolerable threat in the hands of terrorists with no fixed address. Mr Hussein's address like North Korea's is known. A policy of containment must be preferable to the military option. Let Mr Hussein, like his predecessors, be removed unmartyred, by his own people.
SIR — Your argument would make more sense in terms of military strategy and realpolitik, as well as in terms of equity and ethics, if one could assume that, before moving against Mr Hussein, firm steps were finally taken—with honest and consistent support from America—to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in line with successive and unambiguous UN resolutions.
SIR — You argue convincingly that Mr Hussein is a monster and that he is about to become even more dangerous. Surely the people most in danger from this monster live close by in the Middle East. If America cannot persuade these neighbours of their danger in discreet diplomatic briefings why should individual European citizens—or editors—blindly trust America's secret analysis from afar? Given the record of its intelligence I am accepting no invitations to weddings in Afghanistan. What do you know that I do not? Thank you. This is misleading. Mary Robinson's visit was one among several by high-ranking UN human-rights officials invited by the Mexican government since Far from representing a risk, Mrs Robinson's visit showed the government's strong commitment to the improvement of human rights in our country.
This ignores the fact that previously Mr Berlusconi had chaired a meeting of his cabinet and had participated in a vote at the Senior Council of Magistrates. All these official duties had been listed for The Economist 's correspondent by the prime minister's office; but no trace of them appears in the article. Editor's note: The prime minister's office told us that the king's visit was one of the reasons why Mr Berlusconi could not attend the judicial hearing.
We doubted that explanation since the meeting with the king took place in the evening. So far as the other reasons for non-attendance are concerned, the judicial hearing had been scheduled well in advance, and the meetings cited in the spokesman's letter were routine.
But you draw so gloomy a picture that one could think Poland on the brink of collapse. It is true that most economic indicators are not encouraging, but so it is in most of Europe; Poland is not immune to global economic trends. Yet despite adverse external conditions, the economy is not heading for the abyss.
The government has stabilised public finances and continues structural reforms, including privatisation, to improve the environment in which Polish firms operate. Despite worsening terms of trade and appreciation of our currency, the trade deficit is the same as last year. The finance minister's new programme aims to revive the economy. It may raise criticism, especially of the idea of writing off the debt of some enterprises, but under present budgetary constraints that is the only way to enable firms to carry on operating through today's economic difficulties.
Firms that restructure—but only they—will get tax incentives and reliefs. The entire process will be fully transparent and carefully monitored. Poland is in the middle of the league of candidate countries.
That narrative is simply too unwieldy, and its project simply too ambitious. Tony Simpson discusses his new book which examines pre-Waitangi New Zealand history. Gasoline is a major contributor to the green house gas. Whatever the initial trigger mechanisms, the next step is heightened awareness and critical thinking about proposed proof points and the identification of substantive problems. Who is better at proclaiming the gospel of Christ than those who know and understand the obstacles that face their brothers? Virtual Community.
Of course, we are trying to get the best terms, and the negotiations, in their final phase, are tough. But to win a referendum on EU accession, the government has to convince the public that the conditions ultimately agreed really are the best we could negotiate.
And, without that, Poland might lose its historic chance. Rembrandt's work has been known for centuries; will Mr Schumacher be remembered in years just because he drove a racing car and won a sports competition five or more times?
Does anyone remember who were the best sportsmen in Rembrandt's times? SIR — The anti-pollution measures you describe in your survey of the global environment July 6th as market-based stretch the definition of a market. An amended Clean Air Act and pollution taxes are hardly non-governmental approaches to protecting and cleaning up the natural world.
You point out that state subsidies distort markets but you seem not to recognise that taxes and government regulations do so too. SIR — Your proposal to tax carbon emissions and to use the resulting revenue to reduce taxes on labour does not go far enough. We should impose significant taxes on all uses of non-renewable natural resources, especially those in short supply.
The money raised should be used to reduce significantly taxes on labour, our most renewable resource. Future generations will thank us. SIR — In fairness and morality we should strive to eliminate all harmful practices that produce impediments for future generations. We have already blemished the future by adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. We currently gift the future with the menace of sequestered nuclear waste. Let us not make things worse by sequestering carbon and so sweeping dirt under the carpet and relying on future generations to carry out a meaningful clean-up.
SIR — You fail to address the pressing need to get clean energy to the world's poorest people. Electricity from national grids does not reach the rural poor. They need relatively small amounts of energy to light schools, run health services, increase production and create jobs.
To get clean energy to them requires a decentralised approach using local resources such as wind power, solar energy or small hydroelectric projects. A global effort is needed to tackle extreme poverty. CO 2 life-cycle emissions for natural gas are higher than coal after taking into account leakage during transport through old Russian pipelines.
Moreover, coal-fired electricity producers in Europe have invested heavily in new clean-coal technologies—over euro 7 billion in the past three years—in order to make coal power plants more efficient and environmentally friendly. Coal reserves are distributed in over countries, and are abundant.